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Research: cognitive processes involved in visual word recognition


General Research

My research focuses on the cognitive processes involved in visual word cognition, investigating what is universal in the reading process across diverse languages, and what aspects of reading are unique to each language's orthographic and morphological system. My previous work focused on the orthographic depth hypothesis, and the strong phonological theory of reading. Presently, I am involved in a comprehensive investigation of morphological processing in Hebrew and how Hebrew is learnt as a second language. This involves various experimental paradigms such as masked priming, parafoveal presentation, and brain imaging. Most of my research work is pursued in collaboration with Haskins Laboratories in New Haven.

Edited books

1. R. Frost, & L. Katz (Eds.) Orthography, Phonology, Morphology, and Meaning. In Advances in Psychology, Holland: Elsevier. 1992.

2. R. Frost, & J. Grainger (Eds.). (2000). Cross-Linguistinc Perspectives on Morphological Processing. In: Special Issue of Language and Cognitive Processes. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

3. R. Frost, J. Grainger, & K. Rastle (Eds.). (2005). Current Issues in Morphological Processing. In: Special Issue of Language and Cognitive Processes. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

4. R. Frost, J. Grainger, & M. Carreiras (Eds.). (2008). New directions in Morphological Processing. In: Special Issue of Language and Cognitive Processes. Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

Published Papers


5. Frost, R., Katz, L., & Bentin, S. (1987). Strategies for visual word recognition and orthographical depth: A multilingual comparison. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 13, 104-115.

6.  Bentin, S., & Frost, R. (1987). Processing lexical ambiguity and visual word recognition in a deep orthography. Memory & Cognition, 15, 13-23.

7.  Goldblum, N., & Frost, R. (1988). The crossword puzzle paradigm: The effectiveness of different word fragments as cues for the retrieval of words. Memory & Cognition. 16, 158-167.

8.  Frost, R., Repp, B.H. & Katz, L. (1988). Can speech perception be influenced by simultaneous presentation of print? Journal of Memory & Language, 27, 741-755.
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9.  Repp, B.H., & Frost, R. (1988). Detectability of words and nonwords in two kinds of noise. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 84, 1929-1931.

10.  Frost, R., & Gati, I. (1989). Comparison of the geometric and the contrast models of similarity by presentation of visual stimuli to the left and the right visual fields. Brain & Cognition, 9, 1-15.

11.  Frost, R., & Katz, L. (1989). Orthographic depth and the interaction of visual and auditory processing in word recognition. Memory & Cognition, 17, 302-311.

12.  Frost, R., & Bentin, S. (1990) Processes of visual word perception in the Hebrew orthography. In: K. Binyaminy, A. Dolev, E. Cohen, M. Amir, & I. M. Schlesinger (Eds.) Theories and Application in Psychology, Jerusalem: Magnes. (in Hebrew).

13.  Frost, R., Feldman, L.B., & Katz, L. (1990). Phonological ambiguity and Lexical ambiguity: Effects on visual and auditory word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 569-580.

14.   Frost, R. (1990). Orthographies and word perception. Psychologia,1, 4-11. (in Hebrew).

15.  Frost, R. (1991). Phonetic recoding of print and its effect on the detection of speech in amplitude modulated noise. Cognition, 39, 195-214.

16.  Frost, R. (1991). Orthographic depth and Psychological reality: A reply to Yossef Shimron. Psychologia, 2, 189-191. (In Hebrew).

17.  Frost, R.(1992). Orthography and Phonology: The psychological reality of orthographic depth. In M. Noonan, P. Downing, & S.Lima (Eds). The Linguistics of Literacy. (pp 255-274). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

18.  Frost, R., & Bentin, S. (1992). Processing phonological and Semantic Ambiguity: Evidence from semantic priming at different SOAs. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 18, 58-68.

19.  Katz, L., & Frost, R. (1992). Orthography, phonology, Morphology, and Meaning: an overview. In: R. Frost, & L. Katz (Eds.) Orthography, Phonology, Morphology, and Meaning. (pp 1-8). In Advances in Psychology, Holland: Elsevier.

20.  Frost, R. & Bentin, S. (1992). Reading consonants and guessing vowels: Visual word recognition in Hebrew orthography. In: R. Frost, & L. Katz (Eds). Orthography, Phonology, Morphology, and Meaning. (pp. 27-44). In Advances in Psychology, Holland: Elsevier.

21.  Katz, L. & Frost, R. (1992). Reading in different orthographies: the orthographic depth hypothesis. In: R. Frost, & L. Katz (Eds). Orthography, Phonology, Morphology, and Meaning. (pp. 67-84). In Advances in Psychology, Holland: Elsevier.

22.  Repp, B.H., Frost, R., & Zsiga, E. (1992). Lexical mediation between sight and sound in speechreading. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45A, 1-20.

23.  Frost, R. & Kampf, M. (1993). Phonetic recoding of phonologically ambiguous printed words. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 23-33.

24.  Frost, R. (1994). Prelexical and postlexical strategies in reading: Evidence from a deep and a shallow orthography. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning,Memory, and Cognition, 20, 1-16.

25.  Bentin, S., & Frost, R. (1994). Morphologocal factors in visual word identification in Hebrew. In L. Feldman (Ed.) Morphological aspects of language processing. (pp. 271-292). N.J., USA: Erlbaum.

26.  Feldman, L.B., Frost, R., & Pnini, T. (1995). Decomposing words into their constituent morphemes: evidence from English and Hebrew. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 947-960.

27.  Ben-Dror, I., Bentin, S., & Frost, R. (1995). Semantic, phonological, and morphological skills in children with reading disabilities and normally achieving readers: Evidence from perception and production of spoken Hebrew words. Reading Research Quarterly, 30, 876-893.

28.  Frost, R. (1995). Phonological computation and missing vowels: Mapping lexical involvement in reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 398-408.

29.  Ben-Dror, I., Frost, R., & Bentin, S. (1995). Orthographic representation and phonemic segmentation in skilled readers: a cross-language comparison. Psychological Science, 6, 176-180.

30,  Ben Shakhar, G., Frost, R., Gati, I., & Kersh, Y. (1996). Is an apple a fruit? Semantic relatedness as reflected by psychophysiological responsivity. Psychophysiology, 33, 671-679.

31.  Gronau, N., & Frost, R. (1997). Prelexical Phonologic Computation in a Deep Orthography: Evidence from Backward Masking in Hebrew. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4, 107-112.

32.  Gollan, T., Forster, K.I., & Frost, R. (1997). Translation priming with different scripts: Masked priming with cognates an noncognates in Hebrew-English billinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory, & Cognition, 23, 1122-1139.

33.  Frost, R. (1997). Principles of reading acquisition in Hebrew: Analysis of the Psycholinguistic Method. Psycholinguistic studies in Israel: language acquisition,reading, and writing. J. Shimron (Ed.), pp 290-307. Jerusalem: Magnes. (in Hebrew).

34.  Berent, I. &, Frost, R. (1997). The inhibition of polygraphic consonants in spelling Hebrew: evidence for a recurrent assembly of spelling and phonology in visual word recognition. In C.A. Perfetti, L. Rieben, & M. Fayol (Eds.). Learning to Spell. (pp 195-220). NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

35.  Frost, R., Forster, K.I., & Deutsch, A. (1997). What can we learn from the morphology of Hebrew: a masked priming investigation of morphological representation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory, & Cognition, 23, 829-856.

36.  Frost, R. (1998). Towards a strong phonological theory of visual word recognition: True issues and false trails. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 71-99.

37.  Deutsch, A., Frost, R., & Forster, K.I. (1998). Verbs and nouns are organized and accessed differently in the mental lexicon: Evidence from Hebrew. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory, & Cognition, 24, 1238-1255.

38.  Frost, R., Deutsch, A., Gilboa, O., Tannenbaum, M., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (2000). Morphological priming: Dissociation of phonological, semantic, and morphological factors. Memory & Cognition, 28, 1277-1288.

39.  Deutsch A, Frost, R., Pollatsek A., & Rayner, K. (2000). Early morphological effects in word recognition in Hebrew: Evidence from parafoveal preview benefit. Language and Cognitive Processe, 15, 487-506.

40.  Frost, R., & Grainger, J. (2000). Cross-linguistic Perspectives on Morphological Processing: An Introduction. Language & Cognitive Processes, 15, 321-328.

41.  Frost, R., Deutsch, A. & Forster, K.I. (2000). Decomposing Morphologically Complex Words in a Nonlinear Morphology. Journal of Experimental Psychology Learning Memory, & Cognition, 26, 751-765.

42.  Gollan T., & Frost, R. (2001). The syntactic route to grammatical gender. Journal Of Psycholinguistic Research, 30, 627-651.

43.  Frost, R., & Yogev, O. (2001). Orthographic and phonological computation in visual word recognition: Evidence from backward masking in Hebrew. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 8, 524-530.

44.  Bentin, S., & Frost, R. (2001) Linguistic theory and psychological reality: A reply to Budelaa and Marslen-Wilson. Cognition, 81, 113-118.

45.  Deutsch, A., & Frost, R. (2003). Lexical organization and lexical access in a non- concatenated morphology: Mapping the mental lexicon. In Y. Shimron (Ed.) Language processing and acquisition in Languages of Semitic, Root Based Morphology. Amsterdam/ Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

46.  Frost, R. (2003) The robustness of phonological effects in fast priming. In: S. Kinoshita and S. J. Lupker (Eds.). Masked Priming the State of the Art. The Macquarie Monographs in Cognitive Science, Hove, UK: Psychology Press.

47.  Deutsch, A., Frost, R., Peleg, S, Pollatsek, A., & Rayner, K. (2003) Early morphological effects in reading: Evidence from parafoveal preview benefit in Hebrew. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review,10, 415-422 .

48.  Frost, R., Ahissar, M., Gottesman, R, & Tayeb, S. (2003). Are phonological effects fragile? The Effect of Luminance and Exposure Duration on Form Priming and Phonological Priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 48, 346-378.

49.  Nazir, T., ben-Boutayab, N., Decoppet, N., Deutsch, A., & Frost, R. (2004). Reading habits, perceptual learning, and the recognition of printed words. Brain and Language, 88, 294-311.

50.  Frost, R. , Grainger, J. & Rastle, K. (2005). Current issues in morphological processing: An introduction. Language and Cognitive Processe, 20, 1-5.
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51.  Deutsch, A., Frost, R., Pollatsek, A., & Rayner, K. (2005). Morphological Parafoveal Preview Benefit Effects in Reading: Evidence from Hebrew. Language and Cognitive Processes, 20,341-371.

52.  Velan, H., Frost, R. , Deutsch, A., & Plaut, D. (2005). The processing of root morphemes in Hebrew: Contrasting localist and distributed accounts. Language and Cognitive Processes, 20, 169-206.

53.  Frost, R. (2005). Orthographic Systems and Skilled Word Recognition Processes in Reading. In C. Hulme, M. Snowling (Eds.). The Science of Reading: A Handbook. (pp.272-295). Mass.: Blackwell.

54.  Moscoso, F., Deutsch, A., Frost, R., Schreuder, R., de Jong, N.H. & Baayen, H. (2005). Chaning Places: A cross-language perspective of frequency and family size in Dutch and Hebrew. Journal of Memory & Language, 53, 496-512.

55.  Frost, R., Kugler, T., & Forster, K.I. (2005). Orthographic structure versus morphological structure: principles of lexical organization in a given language. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 31, 1293-1326.

56.  Frost, R. (2006). Becoming Literate in Hebrew: The Grain-Size Hypothesis and Semitic Orthographic Systems. Developmental Science, 9(5), 439-440.

57.  Tzur, H. & Frost, R. (2007). SOA does not Reveal the Absolute Time Course of Cognitive Processing in Fast Priming Experiments. Journal of Memory and Language, 56, 321-335.

58.  Frost, R. & Ziegler, J. (2007). Speech and Spelling Interaction: The Interdependence of Visual and Auditory Word Recogntion. In G. Gaskell (Ed.). Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

59.  Velan, H. & Frost, R. (2007). Cambridge University Vs. Hebrew University: The impact of letter transposition on reading English and Hebrew. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 913-918.

60.  Bick, A.S., Goelman, G. & Frost, R. (2008). Neural Correlates of Morphological Processes in Hebrew. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 406-420.

61.  Frost, R., Grainger, J. & Carreiras, M. (2008). Advances in morphological processing: An introduction. Language and Cognitive Processes, 23, 933-941.

62.  Frost, R. (2009). Reading in Hebrew vs. Reading in English: Is There a Qualitative Difference? In K. Pugh & P. McCradle (Eds.) How Children Learn To Read: Current Issues and New Directions in the Integration of Cognition, Neurobiology and Genetics of Reading and Dyslexia Research and Practice. Psychology Press. (pp. 235-254).

63.  Velan, H. & Frost, R. (2009). Letter-transposition effects are not universal:The impact of transposing letters in Hebrew. Journal of Memory and Language, 61, 285-302.

64.  Bick, A.S., Frost, R., & Goleman, G. (2010). Imaging Implicit Morphological Processing: Evidence in Hebrew. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22, 1955-1969.

65.  Elkana, O., Frost, R., Kramer, Ben-Bashat, Handler, T., Schmidt, & Schweiger, A. (In Press). Cerebral reorganization as a function of linguistic recovery in children: An fMRI investigation. Cortex.

66.  Bick, A.S., Goleman, G. & Frost, R. (In Press). Hebrew Brain vs. English Brain: Language Modulates the Way It Is Processed. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience.

67.  Velan, H., & Frost, R. (2011). Words with and without internal structure: what determines the nature of orthographic and morphological processing? Cognition, 118, 141-156.

68.  Frost, R. (in press). Looking across orthographies. In P. McCardle, J.R. Lee, O.J.L. Tzeng, & B. Miller (Eds.). Dyslexia across languages: orthography, and the Brain-gene-behavior Link. Baltimore, MD: Brooks Publishing.

Selected Papers Presented at Scientific Conferences and Invited Presentations

Frost, R., & Katz, L. Interactive processes in visual and auditory word perception. Paper presented at the Twenty-Eight Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Seattle, WA, November 1987.

Frost, R., & Repp, B.H. Can simultaneous presentation of print influence the detection of speech in noise? Paper presented at the 115th Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Seattle, WA, May 1988.

Frost, R., Feldman, L.B., & Katz, L. Phonological ambiguity and Lexical ambiguity: Effects on visual and auditory Word Recognition. Paper presented at the Workshop on Word Recognition, Zadar, Yugoslavia, August 1989.

Frost, R., & Bentin, S. Phonologic Ambiguity and Semantic Ambiguity: Effects of Semantic Priming at Short and Long SOA. Paper presented at the 30th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Atlanta, November 1989.

Frost, R. Phonetic recoding of printed words and its effect on the detection of speech. Paper presented at the 4th Meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, Como, Italy, September 1990.

Frost, R. Phonetic recoding of phonologically ambiguous printed words. Paper presented at the 32th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, San Francisco, November 1991.

Frost, R. Naming in a shallow orthography is mainly prelexical: Evidence from Hebrew. Paper presented at the 5th Meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, Paris, September 1992.

Frost, R. Lexical and prelexical computation of phonology: Evidence from unpointed Hebrew. Paper presented at the 34th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Washington D.C, November 1993.

Frost, R., Forster, K.I., & Deutsch, A. Morphological representation in Hebrew: A masked priming investigation. Paper presented at the 34th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, St. Louis, November 1994.

Frost, R., Forster, K.I. & Deutsch, A. Morphological processing and semantic processig, which comes first? Paper presented at the 8th Meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, Rome, September 1995.

Frost, R., Forster, K.I. & Deutsch, A. Morphological processing preceeds semantic processing. Paper presented at the 36th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Los Angeles, November 1995.

Frost, R., & Gronau, N. Prelexical phonologic computation in a deep orthography: Evidence from backward masking in Hebrew. Paper presented at the 9th Meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology. Wurzburg, Germany, September 1996.

Frost, R., Deutsch, A., & Forster, K.I. Verbs and nouns are represented diffrently in the mental lexicon. Paper presented at the 38th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Philladelphia, November 1997.

Frost, R., Deutsch, A., & Forster, K.I. Morphological decomposition is goverened by representation of formal structure rather than co-occurence of sublexical units. Paper presented at the 39th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Dallas, November 1998.

Frost, R. & Kugler, T. What can form priming tell us about the morphological organization of the mentel lexicon? Paper presented at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Los-Angeles, November 1999.

Frost, R., Ahissar, M., Gottesman, R., & Tayeb, S. Are phonological effects fragile? Paper presented at the 12th Meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology. Edinburgh, September 2001.

Frost, R., Kugler, K., Deursch, A., & Forster, K.I. Orthographic structure versus morphologica. structure. Principles of lexical organization in a given language. Paper presented at the 40th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Orlando, November 2001.

Frost, R., Tzur, B., & Ahissar, M. SOA does not reveal the absolute time course of cognitive processing in fast priming experiments. Paper presented at the 43trd Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Vancouver, November 2003.

Frost, R. & Velan, H. Morphological processing in Hebrew & English: Are the differences quantitive or qualitative? Paper presented at the 45th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Toronto, November 2005.

Frost, R. Learning to Read in a Semitic language: The case of Hebrew writing system. Invited speaker at the OECD workshop on reading acquisition. Cambridge, England, September 2006.

Frost, R. Reading in English vs reading in Hebrew, is there a difference? Invited speaker at the 25th European workshop on Cognitive Neuropsychology, Bressanone, Italy. January 2007.

Frost, R. Reading in English and Hebrew, are the differences qualitative? Invited speaker at the Extraordinary Brain Symposium, The Dyslexia Foundation, Campos do Jordao, Brazil, June 2007.

Frost, R. Cross-linguistic differences in normal and dyslexic reading. From behavioral data to the brain. Invited speaker at the OECD meeting, Helsinki, Finland, September 2007.

Frost, R. From orthographic depth to morphological depth. Invited speaker at the Institute of Cognitive neuroscience, National Central University, Taipei, Taiwan, April 2008.

Frost, R., & Velan, H. Processing morphologically complex and morphologically simple words in Hebrew. Evidence for two independent lexical systems. Paper presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago, November 2008.

Frost, R. Towards an ecological theory of visual word recognition. Invited speaker at the Basque Center for Brain and Language, San Sebastian, Spain, May 2010.

Frost, R., Narkiss, A., Velan H., & Deutsch, A. Learning to read Hebrew as a second language: Acquiring "Semitic" markers of reading. Paper presented at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Saint Louis, November 2010.

 

Contact

Haskins Laboratories
300 George Street
New Haven, CT 06511

Telephone (Hebrew U): 972 02 588 1779

Email